Why don’t all obese patients develop type 2 diabetes?
In the later stages of the disease, when the pancreas is depleted, the patient does not produce enough insulin to maintain normal sugar levels.
In both cases, sugar builds up in the blood and, if left untreated, affects many major organs, sometimes to the point of disability or life-threatening. The main risk factor for type 2 diabetes is being overweight, which is often the result of eating too much fat and sugar combined with low physical activity.
Andrey Morgun and Natalia Shulzhenko of OSU and Giorgio Trinchieri of the National Cancer Institute have developed a new analytical technique, multi-organ network analysis, to explore the mechanisms behind the staging of systemic insulin resistance. head.
What organs, biological pathways, and genes are at play?
The results suggest that a particular type of gut bacteria that leads to white adipose tissue contains macrophage cells – large cells that are part of the immune system – involved in insulin resistance. These findings were published in Journal of Experimental Medicine.
“Our experiments and analysis predict that a high-fat/high-sugar diet primarily acts in white adipose tissue by promoting damage associated with microbiota on energy synthesis, leading to systemic insulin resistance”. OSU College of Pharmacy.
The human gut microbiome is made up of more than 10 trillion microbial cells from about 1,000 different species of bacteria.
Previous research has developed a computational method, analyzing the transkingdom network, that predicts specific bacteria that control the expression of mammalian genes associated with specific medical conditions such as diabetes.
The so-called Western diet is high in saturated fat and refined sugar as one of the main factors. But gut bacteria have an important role to play in regulating the effects of diet.
They also conducted experiments in mice, looking at the intestines, liver, muscle and white adipose tissue, and examined the molecular signature – the gene being expressed – of white adipose tissue macrophages in obese patients.
Western diet-induced diabetes is characterized by microbiome-dependent mitochondrial damage. Adipose tissue has a key role in systemic insulin resistance, and we characterized the gene expression program and major regulator of adipose tissue macrophages involved in insulin resistance.
They found that Oscillibacter is likely not the only microbial regulator for the expression of the key gene they have identified – Mmp12 – and the Mmp12 pathway, while it is a tool, perhaps not the only pathway of importance, depending on which gut bacteria are present.